Chronic liver disease

Liver diseases are caused by a variety of factors and conditions including:

  • Infections
  • Malnutrition
  • Alcohol
  • Drugs
  • Pharmacotherapy
  • Genetic disorders

Symptoms can be acute or chronic and all have the potential to lead to gallstones, fatty liver hepatitis and cirrhosis. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an important but frequently overlooked complication of a wide range of liver diseases. On average, about 30-45% of patients with cirrhosis will develop HE.2

A variety of liver diseases can lead to HE1


1. Relative frequency of liver diseases in the disease register of the University of Virginia, USA, 2001, Caldwell SH in: Steatohepatitis,151-158, 2001.
2. Poordad FF. Review article: the burden of hepatic encephalopathy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;25 Suppl 1:3-9.